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Estimating Numbers of Terrestrial Birds

C. John Ralph, and J. Michael Scott
Studies in Avian Biology
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Reader's Guide, v
Introduction, 1-2
J. Michael Scott, C. John Ralph
Genesis of the Symposium, 3-4
Robert Z. Callaham
The Needs for Censuses in Policy Making, 5-6
David L. Trauger
Photographs of Participants, 7-10
Anthony Gomez

Estimating Relative Abundance

Chairman's Introductory Remarks to Part 1, 11
Joseph J. Hickey
Counting Birds for a Relative Measure Index of Density, 12-16
David G. Dawson
The Christmas Bird Count and Avian Ecology, 17-23
Carl E. Bock, Terry L. Root
The Christmas Bird Count: An Overlooked and Underused Sample, 24-29
Susan Roney Drennan
The Christmas Bird Count: Constructing an Ideal Model, 30-33
Robert S. Arbib, Jr.
The North American Breeding Bird Survey, 34-41
Danny Bystrak
Estimates of Avian Population Trends from the North American Breeding Bird Survey, 42-51
Barry R. Noon, Paul H. Geissler
Reappraisal of the Winter Bird-Population Study Technique, 52-57
Chandler S. Robbins
Summarizing Remarks: Estimating Relative Abundance Part 1, 58-59
Douglas H. Johnson
Summarizing Remarks: Estimating Relative Abundance, 60
Ralph W. Schreiber
Chairman's Introductory Remarks: Estimating Abundance Part 2, 61
Robert D. Ohmart
Surveying Birds with Mist Nets, 62-67
James R. Karr
Playback Recordings as a Special Avian Censusing Technique, 68-75
R. Roy Johnson, Bryan T. Brown, Lois T. Haight, James M. Simpson
Indirect Estimates of Abundance of Birds, 76-80
Evelyn L. Bull
Use of Playback Recordings in Sampling Elusive or Secretive Birds, 81-85
Wayne R. Marion, Timothy E. O'Meara, David S. Maehr
Mapping Territories with Playback An Accurate Census Method for Songbirds, 86-91
J. Bruce Falls
The Use of Migration Counts for Monitoring Bird Population Levels, 93-102
David J. T. Hussell
An Overview of Grid-Based Atlas Works in Ornithology, 103-109
Miklos D. F. Udvardy
Summarizing Remarks: Estimating Relative Abundance, 110-111
P. V. Rao
Summarizing Remarks: Estimating Relative Abundance Part 2, 112
Stanley A. Temple

Estimating Birds Per Unit Area

Chairman's Introductory Remarks: Estimating Birds per Unit Area, 113
David R. Anderson
Limitations of the Mapping Method, 114-118
Hans Oelke
Territory and Home Range of the Blackcap (Sylvia Atricapilla) and Some other Passerines, Assessed and Compared by Mapping and Capture-Recapture, 119-120
C. Ferry, B. Frochot, Y. Leruth
Remarks on the Use of Mark-Recapture Methodology in Estimating Avian Population Size, 121-136
James D. Nichols, Barry R. Noon, S. Lynne Stokes, James E. Hines
Mark-Recapture - What Next?, 137-138
G. M. Holly
The Determination of Avian Densities Using the Variable-Strip and Fixed-Width Transect Surveying Methods, 139-145
Kathleen E. Franzreb
Methodology for Censusing Land Bird Faunas in large Regions, 146-151
Olli Jarvinen, Rosto A. Vaisanen
Sources of Error Involved in the Finnish Line-Transect Method, 152-159
Olavi Hilden
Summarizing Remarks: Estimating Birds per Unit Area, 160-161
Charles E. Gates
Summarizing Remarks: Estimating Birds per Unit Area, 162
Larry F. Pank

Comparison of Methods

Chairman's Introductory Remarks: Comparison Methods, 163
Chandler S. Robbins
A Comparative Analysis of Territorial Mapping and Variable-Strip Transect Censusing Methods, 164-169
Kathleen E. Franzreb
A Comparison of Three Avian Census Methods, 170-176
Daniel K. Edwards, Geoffrey L. Dorsey, John A. Crawford
A Field Test of the Variable Circular-Plot Censusing Technique in a California Coastal Scrub Breeding Bird Community, 177-185
David F. DeSante
Comparison of Avian Census Results Using Variable Distance Transect and Variable Circular Plot Techniques, 186-192
Bertin W. Anderson, Robert D. Ohmart
A Field Test of Two Density Estimators for Transect Data, 193-196
Timothy E. O'Meara
An Evaluation of Breeding Season Census Techniques for Long-Billed Curlews (Numenius Americanus), 197-201
Roland L. Redmond, Thomas L. Bicak, Donald A. Jenni
Comparison of Line-Transect Methods for Estimating Breeding Bird Densities in Deciduous Woodlots, 202-208
Nancy G. Tilchman, Donald H. Rusch
Do Transect Counts Monitor Abundance Trends in the Same Way as Territory Mapping in Study Plots?, 209-214
Soren E. Svensson
Summarizing Remarks: Comparison of Methods, 215-216
G. M. Jolly
Summarizing Remarks: Comparison of Methods, 217-218
Charles van Riper III

Species Variability

Chairman's Introductory Remarks: Species Variability, 219
Cameron B. Kepler
Problems in Estimating Population Size through Counts of Singing Males, 220-224
Harold F. Mayfield
Bird Populations Consist of Individuals Differing in Many Respects, 225-229
Barbara Diehl
Problems of Unequal Observability, 230-234
Jan Ekman
Methods of Detecting and Counting Raptors: A Review, 235-246
Mark R. Fuller, James A. Mosher
Summarizing Remarks: Species Variability, 247-248
David L. Otis
Summarizing Remarks: Species Variability, 249-250
Robert E. Ricklefs

Environmental Influences

Chairman's Introductory Remarks: Environmental Influences, 251
Harry F. Recher
Seasonal Changes in Detection of Individual Bird Species, 252-261
Louis B. Best
Seasonal Changes in Avian Densities and Diversities, 262-264
Bertin W. Anderson, Robert D. Ohmart, Jake Rice
An Investigation of the Effect of Seasonal Activity Levels on Avian Censusing, 265-270
C. John Ralph
Effect of Time of Day and Time of Season on Number of Observations and Density Estimates of Breeding Birds, 271-274
Aaron A. Skirvin
Effect of Time of Day on Bird Activity, 275-286
Chandler S. Robbins
Diurnal Activity Patterns and Population Estimates of Breeding Birds within a Distributed and Undisturbed Desert-Scrub Community, 287-291
Christian E. Grue, Russell P. Balda, Clarence D. Johnson
Interpreting Population Estimates of Birds Following Pesticide Application--Behavior of Male Starlings Exposed to a Organophosphate Pesicide, 292-296
Christian E. Grue, Byron K. Shipley
Environmental Acoustics and Censuses of Singing Birds, 297-300
Douglas G. Richards
Bird Activity Levels Related to Weather, 301-310
Chandler S. Robbins
Sampling in Rugged Terrain, 311-315
Deanna K. Dawson
Limitations of Estimating Bird Populations Because of Vegetation Structure and Composition, 316-321
Hans Oelke
Summarizing Remarks: Environmental Influences, 322-323
Frank A. Pitelka
Summarizing Remarks: Environmental Influences, 324-325
Kenneth P. Burnham

Observer Variability

Chairman's Introductory Remarks: Observer Variability, 326
Ralph J. Raitt
Limitation and Variability in Hearing Ability in Censusing Birds, 327-333
Andre Cyr
Distance Estimation as a Variable in Estimating Bird Numbers from Vocalizations, 334-340
J. Michael Scott, Fred L. Ramsey, Cameron B. Kepler
Tests of Hearing Ability, 341-345
Fred L. Ramsey, J. Michael Scott
The Application of Song Detection Threshold Distance to Census Operations, 346-352
John T. Emlen, Michael J. DeJong
The Role of Observer Bias in the North American Breeding Bird Survey, 353-359
Craig A. Faanes, Danny Bystrak
Problems in Separating Species with Similar Habits and Vocalizations, 360-365
Chandler S. Robbins, Richard W. Stallcup
Reducing Bird Count Variability by Training Observers, 366-371
Cameron B. Kepler, J. Michael Scott
The Influence of Observer and Analyst Efficiency in Mapping Method Censuses, 372-376
Raymond J. O'Connor
Effects of Observers Using Different Methods upon the Total Population Estimates of Two Resident Island Birds, 377-381
Shelia Conant, Mark S. Collins, C. John Ralph
Lateral Detectability Profiles for Line Transect Bird Censuses: Some Problems and an Alternative, 382-387
Richard L. Hutto, Sandra L. Mosconi
Summarizing Remarks: Observer Variability, 388-389
Lyman L. McDonald
Summarizing Remarks: Observer Variability, 390
David E. Davis

Sampling Design

Chairman's Introductory Remarks: Sampling Design, 391
Jared Verner
Experimental Design When Counting Birds, 392-398
David G. Dawson
Optimizing Sampling Frequency and Numbers of Transects and Stations, 399-404
Charles E. Gates
Effects of Number of Circular Plots on Estimates of Avian Density and Species Richness, 405-408
Michael L. Morrison, R. William Mannan, Geoffrey L. Dorsey
Length of Count Period as a Possible Source of Bias in Estimating Bird Densities, 409-413
J. Michael Scott, Fred L. Ramsey
Point Counts with Unlimited Distance, 414-420
Jacques Blondel, Camille Ferry, Bernard Frochot
The Species-Area Relationship in Spot-Map Censusing, 421-425
Todd Engstrom
Capture-Recapture Models: A Review of Current Methods, Assumptions, and Experimental Design, 426-435
K. H. Pollock
Improved Population Estimates Through the Use of Auxilary Information, 436-440
Douglas H. Johnson
Density Estimation Using Line Transect Sampling, 441-444
P. V. Rao, K. M. Portier, J. A. Ondrasik
Avian Censusing with the Strip Method: A Computer Simulation, 445-449
Ronald W. Engel-Wilson, A. Kurt Webb, Kenneth V. Rosenberg, Robert D. Ohmart, Bertin W. Anderson
Summarizing Remarks: Sampling Design, 450-451
Jake Rice
Summarizing Remarks: Sampling Design, 452-453
Frances C. James

Data Analysis

Chairman's Introductory Remarks: Data Analysis, 454
Fred L. Ramsey
Breeding Bird Censuses Using Spot-Mapping Techniques upon Samples of Homogeneous Habitats, 455-460
Paul F. J. Eagles
An Evaluation and Comparison of Techniques for Estimating Home Range and Territory Size, 461-465
R. Glenn Ford, J. P. Myers
Line Transect Estimation of Bird Population Density Using a Fourier Series, 466-482
Kenneth P. Burnham, David R. Anderson, Jeffery L. Laake
Analysis of Bird Survey Data Using a Modification of Emlen's Method, 483-487
Fred L. Ramsey, J. Michael Scott
Residual Edge Effects with Mapping Bird Census Method, 488-491
J. H. Marchant
The Efficiency of the Mapping Method--A Computer Simulation Based on Field Data, 492-495
Martin Erdelen, Beate Erdelen
Methodological Studies of Breeding Bird Surveys in North America, 496-501
A. R. Sen
The Effect of Group Size on Line Transect Estimators of Abundance, 502-508
Terrance J. Quinn II
Summarizing Remarks: Data Analysis, 509-510
Kenneth H. Pollock
Summarizing Remarks: Data Analysis, 511-512
Stuart L. Pimm


Scale Problems in Avian Censusing, 513-521
John A. Wiens
Censusing and the Evaluation of Avian Habitat Occupancy, 522-532
John A. Wiens, John T. Rotenberry
Habitat Correlates of Bird Distribution in British Census Plots, 533-537
Raymond J. O'Connor
Correlating Habitat Variables and Birds, 538-542
Stanley H. Anderson
Measuring Responses of Avian Communities to Habitat Manipulation, 543-547
Jared Verner
Surveying Birds in the Tropics, 548-553
James R. Karr
The Usefulness of Absolute ("Census") and Relative ("Sampling" or "Index") Measures of Abundance, 554-558
David G. Dawson
The Underexploited Potential of Bird Censuses in Insular Ecology, 559-565
Yrjo Haila, Olli Jarvinen
Statistics for the Birds, 566-569
F. N. David
Adapting Generalized Instructions to Specific Situations in Planning Count Work, 570-574
A. J. Erskine
Summary of the Symposium, 575-576
John T. Emlen

Appendices: Committee Reports and Agendas

Appendix I: Terminology Used in Estimating Numbers of Birds, 577-578
C. John Ralph
Appendix II: Report of Working Group for the Revision of Christmas Bird Count Procedures, 579
Arbib Bock
Appendix III: Report of Working Group for the Need for Standardized Census Methods, 580-581
Harry F. Recher
Appendix IV: North American Ornithological Atlas Committee Formed, 582
Miklos D. F. Udvardy
Appendix V: Report of Working Group for the Need for a Manual of Counting Methods, 583
Larry F. Pank
Appendix VI: Report of Working Group to Identify Future Research Needs, 584
Jared Verner
Appendix VII: Poster Papers Presented at Symposium, 585-586
Appendix VIII: List of Symposium Participants, 587-590
Literature Cited, 591-630
Stephen R. Sabo
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