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Reports of the Twenty-First Expedition of the Liverpool School of Tropical Medicine

Newstead, R. 1909.
Reports on the twenty-first expedition of the Liverpool School of Tropical Medicine, Jamaica, 1908–1909. Medical and Economic Entomology.
Annals of Tropical Medicine and Parasitology, 3: 421–469 + 2 plates.


The paper deals mostly with ticks, but a few pages are devoted to other taxa:

  • Natural enemies of ticks, including the Greater Antillean Grackle (Quiscalus niger) and Smooth-billed Ani (Crotophaga ani), lizards and amphibians.
  • Myiasis in humans caused by Calliphoridae, probably Cochliomyia macellaria (Fabricius).
  • Hornflies and Stableflies.
  • Ceratopogonidae.
  • Hippoboscid parasite, Ornithoctona erythrocephala (Leach) (Diptera: Hippoboscidae), of Green Parroquet (Conurus nanus) <= Aratinga nana) (Olive-throated Parakeet)> and Peregrine Falcon (Falco peregrinus nigriceps).
  • Anthrax lucifer (Bombyliidae) [probably Poecilanthrax lucifer (Fabricius, 1775)]. “This is not a bloodsucking insect, and does not, therefore, come strictly within the pale of this Report. Its striking similarity to a tabanid of the genus Haematopota, when on flight, was so marked as to completely deceive the writer on more than one occasion. For this reason alone has it been thought desirable to make this record.”


  • Chrysops costatus [as "costalis”] Fabricius. (= Ch. amazonius [as "amazonicus”] Rondani) <= Ch. variegatus (Degeer)>;
  • Atylotus jamaicensis, n. sp. <= Stenotabanus (Aegialomyia) jamaicensis (Newstead)>

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